sábado, 21 de abril de 2007

Antecedentes

Antecedentes

La yuca es originaria de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), donde se ha cultivado desde épocas prehistóricas. Su adaptación a diversos ecosistemas, su potencial de producción y la versatilidad de su mercado y de su uso final la han convertido en la base de la alimentación de la población rural de la región y en una alternativa de comercialización para los centros urbanos.

En vista de este potencial, durante las últimas décadas la investigación del cultivo de la yuca en la región ha sido liderada por el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical - CIAT, con la colaboración de diversas entidades y programas nacionales, financiada con fondos públicos.

Al finalizar la década de los 80, este modelo dejó de ser viable debido a los cambios ocurridos en el escenario socioeconómico mundial. Las instituciones y los países sintieron entonces la necesidad de organizarse y establecer alianzas estratégicas para continuar con sus actividades de investigación.

El sector yuquero experimentó, de igual forma, la presión del cambio y orientó sus esfuerzos para buscar acceso a las nuevas tecnologías de producción.

Nombre científico:

Manihot Esculenta, Manihot Utilissima.

Familia:

Pertenece a la familia de las Euforbiáceas que comprende más de 7000 especies distribuidas por regiones cálidas de todo el mundo. Las variedades más importantes son la manihot utilissima (mandioca dulce) y la manihot esculenta, a partir de la cual se obtiene la tapioca.

Origen y zonas de cultivo:

La mandioca o yuca es un tubérculo que procede de un arbusto que se cultiva en los países tropicales de América, África y Asia. Presenta una carne de color blanco, recubierta por una corteza de color pardo o marrón oscuro y de aspecto leñoso.
Situación del producto a nivel nacional
La yuca ha sido empleada en Sudamérica desde mucho antes de la Colonia, como parte importante en la alimentación de las tribus, se cree que es originaria de Brasil. Es una raíz de forma alongada cubierta por una cáscara áspera de color rosado/café; su densa y fibrosa pulpa es de color blanco.
La yuca en Ecuador, es un cultivo tradicional que se produce en la costa occidental, la amazonía oriental y los calles interandinos ( tales como Loja y Santo Domingo de los Colorados), desde hace mucho tiempo. En Manabí, el mayor porcentaje de productores está constituido por pequeños agricultores de escasos recursos, que la siembran generalmente como cultivo de subsistencia en superficies de 0.25 a 5.0 hectáreas, sin utilizar tecnologías mejoradas y de preferencia intercalada con maíz; de tal suerte que, para optimizar los rendimientos, debe hacerse mediante técnicas sencillas, baratas y de fácil aplicación, considerando además que la siembra se la hace en áreas de baja fertilidad y poca precipitación. (Ver mapa), a nivel intensivo se siembran variedades desarrolladas o recomendadas por el INIAP (Portoviejo 650 y “Tres meses” para el trópico, Escancela y morada para el subtrópico), de su parte, la Corporación PROEXANT recomienda el uso de la variedad Valencia por su alto rendimiento, valor comercial especialmente a nivel internacional y por su adaptabilidad a las condiciones de Santo Domingo de los Colorados y la región Amazónica.
En algunas zonas de Manabí y Esmeraldas se organizaron las denominadas Asociaciones de Pequeños Productores de Yuca (APPYS) y una unión de organizaciones denominada UAPY, su objetivo fue introducir nuevas tecnologías de cultivo, producir yuca fresca y congelada para la exportación. Así mismo se produce un subproducto que sirve de aglutinante para alimento balanceado de camarones. Existe una buena posibilidad de exportación de yuca congelada para los mercados étnicos en Norteamérica y se han desarrollado industrias de harina precocida para la fabricación de panes.

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